วันพฤหัสบดีที่ 4 เมษายน พ.ศ. 2556

Fi-da-wu ( ฝีดาวู ) was not the sailor !


Fi-da-wu ( ฝีดาวู ) was not the  sailor: Rediscovery of the Traces of Portuguese Words in  the Diary of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon (KosaPān), Siamese Ambassador to France June – July 1686.

Bidya SRIWATTANASARN
                                   
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Dhurakij Pundit University, Bangkok;  Thailand.

บทความนี้เสนอเมื่อ25กุมภาพันธ์ 2556 ในที่ประชุมสัมมนาวิชาการนานาชาติ เรื่อง “ Education, Language, Society, Science and Engineering in ASEAN and its neighbors” ( 23-28 กุมภาพันธ์ 2556) ณ นคร คุนหมิง ประเทศสาธารณรัฐประชาชนจีน ภายใต้ความร่วมมือของ Kunming University (People’s  Republic of China) , Dali University (People’s  Republic of China), National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism (Taiwan R.O.C), Mean Chay University (Cambodia)

Abstract
The Portuguese expansion has resulted  it’s language remaining in Asia at various styles, even the word “ Jesus(ye-sus) - (ye-su) ” in Chinese.     Relations between Siam and Portugal since 1511 have caused  the Portuguese and their descendants settle  in Siam continuity. They also have  their religious practices done in their own churches.  In the Ayutthaya period, not only  working  for the Siamese royal court in  prominent  positions, but also made their  living in Thai society rather peacefully and harmoniously. As the first Europeans in Siam, the  Portuguese language had been used as the “lingua-franca” not less than three centuries.    It caused the Portuguese words remained mysteriously in  Thai archives too, especially; in the diary of Ok Phra Wisut Sunthon aka  KosaPān, a  Siamese  ambassador of King Narai  to France in the reign of Luis XIV, as the case study.  Although  the document had been  published many times since 1984,  however,  the researcher rediscovered that some scholars not only  ignored the  existence of the Portuguese words,  but also, they even has their explanations  in  rather  definite error.  . For example, the word  “fi-da-wu”  in the diary was translated by the paleographer  as the position of  naval officer,  crew  and sailor. Later, more than a decade, a group of senior scholars still  reconfirmed  it with the same definition.  In fact,  with a few  more  careful,  the researcher  has been proved  that , the  “fi-da-wu” was  the position of the nobleman with at least 3 categories such as  one who commanded the marines in the ship, the one who commanded soldiers in  the fort and  the one  who controlled  the storehouse for the city.

Keywords: Portuguese words, Siam,fidalgo, fi-da-wu, sailor, Protuget, Kosa Pān, Ok-Phra Wisut Suntorn, King Louis  XIV

Objectives
There are two main objectives of the research. Firstly, to prove that the word “fi-da-wu” in the diary of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon was not  just a naval officer or a sailor. Secondary, to find out that how many Portuguese words had been used by Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon,  the prominent  Siamese nobleman in the Ayutthaya period.

Methodology and Process
The researcher used historical methods as being  the research instrument,   such a  examining, analyzing comparing   and describing foreign languages in  the  dairy of  Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon (Kosa Pān), both in Thai and English, to find out how many Portuguese words and pronunciations has been remained in his diary.

Findings
              In addition to discovering that the “fi-da-wu” was not only a  sailor, the  researcher also found   that there  were   at least 25  Portuguese words and/ or  pronunciations remained   mysteriously in the diary of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon, in 5 pattern of usages. 


Introduction
Manuel Teixeira, in  “The Portuguese Missions in Malacca and Singapore,1511-1958”  [1] indicates  that there are  at least 6 Portuguese (Pt.) words remaining  in Thailand and Cambodia,  such as the word “sabão” (Pt.) that is equal  to the soap in English,  the word “carta” or “cartaz” (Pt.) are equal  to the paper in English,  the word  “chapinha” (Pt. ) is refer to the small waist straps for covering children sexual organs, the word   “garça” (Pt.) is  the heron or  long-legged  fresh water and coastal birds in the family of Ardeidae, the word  “leilão” (Pt.) mentions to  an auction and the word “real” (Pt.) is referred  to one of  the ancient currency unit using in Southeast  Asia during 16-19 centuries which are still using in Cambodian and Thai  languages. Study of Sumalee Wirawongsa in Notes on the loanword of Thai and Portuguese (ข้อสังเกตว่าด้วยคำยืมไทย-โปรตุเกส), the seminary  proceeding for the conference of  relations between Ayutthaya and Portugal(July 26-28, 2006), give more details that Thai received some Portuguese words  into the ways of life such as  the words  cônsul ( consul ),  padre (father/ priest),  pinto(for  small food container), pão (bread),  missão (mission) and café (coffee).

In 1998,   in other area  of his research, “The  Portuguese Community During the Ayutthaya period,1516-1767”,not only Bidya Sriwattanasarn proposed that there were a  group of Portuguese words in the contract  of 1616 between Siam and Portugal, in the reign of King Songtham (1611-1631),  according to   his analysis, he also demonstrated the way of pronunciation from the Portuguese to Thai  explicitly such as the word “Tong-fi-leep/ ทองฝีหลีป” in Thai  was the name of  “Dom Filip”,  King of Portugal. Some words was  developed into the Thai style as the word “Phra-ya Pa-ra-tu-gal(พระยาปร-ตุ-กัน” which was  equal to “the lord/ king of Portugal and the word “Phra:-ya:-wij-rei-ha:(พระ-ยา-วิขขะ-เร-หะ)” could be compared to the word “viso rei” or viceroy in English. Harmoniously,  Siamese aristocracy of King Songtham left the word  Bat-tri-pare-paran-si-sa-gu-ta-nu-si-ya-sang/ บา-ตรี-ผเร-ผรัน-สี-ศกุ-อนุ-สี-ยา-สัง matching  with the Portuguese words Padre Frei Francisco Anunciação” and the words “ca-pi-tan-mola-wei-ra-ri-bein/ กะปิตันมลเวรรีเบน” was also derived from the words   “Capitão-mor Christovam Rebelo (Captain Christopher Rebelo)[2]. Their existences in the Thai archive,  supported the reliability of the  record of François Timoléon, abbé de Choisy (Journal Du Voyage De Siam ) who said that all  Thai ministers could  speak Portuguese fluently.
Apart from the upper document, there were also some Portuguese words settled quietly in a diary of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon (Kosa Pān), the Siamese Ambassador to France June – July 1686.   Notwithstanding, most historians believed that they had been developed from French.  Furthermore, it is disappointingly that there still no prior obvious description to inform us on how  flourishing of the Portuguese language usages  in the community of  the Siamese elites who worked  for department of the harbor under the commanding  of the Phra Klang; aka the Barcalon, Siamese  minister of foreign affair.
The journey of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon to France
The purpose of the journey of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthorn was  to  continue relations between  France and Siam. The mission departed from Siam in December 1685 with the returning  of French embassy(Chevalier de Chaumant). The Siamese embassy composed with Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon (Kosa Pān) as an ambassador (ราชทูต-Rachathut), Ok-luang Kanlaya Ratchamaitri as second ambassador ( อุปทูต-Uppathut) , and Ok-khun Siwisan Wacha as third ambassador (ตรีทูต-Trithut). They arrived in Brest on June 18, 1686.[3]
The journey of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon had been narrated extensively in the work of Jean Donneau de Vize (1686).  It was translated into Thai by F. Hilaire[4] and published   in the chronicle annals vol. 57-60 (ประชุมพงศาวดารภาคที่57-60) later.  Unluckily, this great book referred to the contemporary atmosphere during the stay at Brest of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon rather briefly.
Fortunately, in 1984, M.L. Manich Jumsai, prominent Thai historian and member of the Royal Institute discovered the manuscript of diary of Ok-Phra Visut Sunthon at the Archives Office of Foreign Mission of Paris. The first disclosure  of  its photo copies to the public  took place in the 12st  National books Fair as “ The Real Draft of  Kosa Pān’s  Report  that  left in France”. Then, M.L. Manich managed to  send the copy to the paleographer of the Fine Art Department to be studied. Later,  it was  published in the journal of Fine Art in January, 1985.[5]Later, with the kindness of the French government, its copies had been officially granted to the Thai government in 1986. The second publishing had been done in the book “The Siamese Embassy of the Sun King  : The personal Memorials of Kosa Pān”,  Bangkok, Duang Kamol, 1990. At the third time,  The journal of  Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon was republished in the  “Diary of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon (KosaPān), Siamese Ambassador to France June – July 1686”  by  Dirk van Der Cruysse,  Visudh Busyakul and Michael Smithies.  Now, it could be comfortably approached in the website of Sirindhorn Anthropology Center. [6]

Fi-da-wu (ฝีดาวู): the most strange French  position in the archive of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon
The Siamese embassy debarked at  Brest on June 16,  1686. They lodged there for 13 days.[7]It is obvious that Ok-Phra Visut Sunthon also wrote  his diary during the stay in Brest too. In the eyes of historians, this wonderful diary could be used as the most precious instrument to fulfill the work of de Vize[8]  as well. For, as the  contemporary archive,  the beginning of de Vize’s  work  had just composed  with the praising of goodness, intelligence and amenities of the Siamese ambassador. On the other hand, his own record has revealed many events in Brest concerned to himself and his mission quite plentiful. 
During his stay in Brest, Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon had a warm welcome with honors. Each day, there were royal servants,  noblemen, and French citizen, both males and females warmly came to pay him a  visit, such as   ministers and wives, governors,   “fi-da-wu” and  wives,  deputy of captains, captains and  daughters, high ranking abbots, senior medicine doctors and  including both junior and  senior officials from nearby the city.  And for the reason that  many parts insider mentioned  to such a freakish position of the “fi-da-wu”, it  significantly inspired  the author   to conduct  the research.   For example, in lines 1-7 of  the first page (1st folio) as below,
“…at noon[9]  on Thursday, the first day of the waxing moon of the eight month[10], a se-na-bo-di (minister) for soldier commanding and a fi-da-wu came to pay me a visit on the ship. We had a conservation together as befitted the  occasion. And at exactly noon Mu-su[11] Ra-vi-ton and Mu-su Sabro[12], assistant to the caption of the ship, came up and asked these visitors to join us for lunch. After lunch, the same assistant informed me that wives of  7 fi-da-wu(es) had  come to give me greetings…”[13]

Who was  the “fi-da-wu” in the earlier studies ? 
            The word fi-da-wu and the context concerning  to it,  appeared many places in the diary,  such as  in the folio 1, 2, 5, 12, 13, 14, 27, 28, 29, 33, 34, 35, 46, 47, 60, 61, 62 and 64.
At least 2 times Kongkaew Weeraprajuck(1985), a  prominent Thai paleographer has defied  the word  “fi-da-wu”  as uncertainly as below:
“ It could be a kind of officer who works in a ship or who is the ship’s crew or a sailor.”[14]

15 years later, she still reiterated the  upper word with the same  definition  in  the “Transcription of the letters of  Kosa Pān”  published in the Silpakorn Magazine in 2010[15],  without  reviewing.
Fortunately, Derk Van Der Cruysse and others (2002), in their work, they stated that  some words were the Portuguese vocabularies[16],   for example, they proposed  that the word “fi-da-wu” had developed into Thai from the Portuguese “fidalgo”;  the indication of status of the nobleman.  Yet,  they dared not to interpret it  away from the former  Thai paleographer, as a description in one of his footnotes,
“ Fi-da-wu. From Port., fidalgo. The meaning is not clear. From the context, it may mean ‘a man in the naval, a naval officer.’ The naval officers were all held to be the nobility” [17]

The fi-da-wu was not just a  sailor or naval officer.
            With due  respect  to the work of  both Kongkaew and Dirk Van Der Cruysse and others, the author does not agree with such as former dim terming, and   thankfully for the acceptable identifying  of the latter.
            In the context of the diary, Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon often narrated the position of the fi-da-wu amongst  the most important or rather important noblemen and citizen of Brest, for example, a minister and a fi-da-wu[18] : the governor,  the minister and the  fi-da-wu[19] : officials and the  fi-da-wu[20] senior and junior officials, a captain of the ship and the fi-da-wu[21]: the fi-da-wu and citizen[22]: the captain of the ship and 5 fi-da-wu(es)[23]: the governor, senior medicine doctor and 4 fi-da-wu(es)[24] : the captain of the ship and the fi-da-wu[25]: the captain of the ship  and his assistant official and fi-da-wu[26]: captain of the fort and the fi-da-wu[27]: captain of the fort, officer and fi-da-wu[28] and governor & his assistant and fi-da-wu[29]. And after being  consult, the author has accepts the opinion of  his  Portuguese connection, Dr. Miguel Castelo Branco[30],  an expert in the field of relations between Thailand and Portugal in the Bangkok Period,  who proposes that:

“Fidau /or FIDALGO means nobleman (in Portuguese ancient society, means someone with a family name and some privileges given or confirmed by the King). Etymologically, FIDALGO comes from Filho de Alguém (son of someone) and here someone means a person with name.[31]:

               With a few  more  careful in reading the diary,  the researcher  had proved  that , the  “fi-da-wu” was   the position of the nobleman with at least 3 categories such as  one who commanded the marines[32] in the ship, the one who commanded soldiers in  the fort[33] and  the one  who controlled  the storehouse[34] for the city.
               Instead of using  the word “noblesse (means-noble in English)” in French, Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon selected   the Portuguese word “fidalgo” in place.  Perhaps, It might  reflected that he himself and other people were rather   familiar with the Portuguese word “fi-da-wu”  in calling European nobleman,  as same as  the ordinary  words like a “hello”,  “taxi”,  “o.k.”,  “Thank you”,  “Happy new year”,  “TV”,  “Motorcycle”,  “pump”,  “ gas” , etc.,  that were used to many  kinds  of people in Thailand at  the present day.

Traces of the richness of the Portuguese words  in  the diary: reflection of knowledge the Portuguese  language  of  Siamese nobleman
Although, only in the   diary, the researcher could rediscover  that there were   at least 25 Portuguese words and/ or  pronunciations remained mysteriously in 5 patterns of usages.  The 1st  category was a  group of words which  was developed  from the original Portuguese words,  the 2nd category derived from the Portuguese words directly, the  3rd category  was a  French word  relates to the  Portuguese pronunciation , the 4th category  was the mixing words  and pronunciations between French and Portuguese and the 5th category covered  the  words that could be pronounced  similar to  both languages, as demonstrating  in the tables below:

Table 1: Example of the first category, developing  from the Portuguese words.

Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon
Portuguese words
definitions
1.Fi-da-wu (ฝี-ดา-วู)
[F.1-2-512-13-14-27-28-29-33-34-35-46-47-60]
Fidalgo (fi-dal-gu)
status of  ancient Portuguese noblemen
2.Ba-tri (บา-ตรี)
[F.1]
Padre (pa-drə)
Father/ priest
3.Ba-tri-sam-poa-lo
(บา-ตรี-สำ-ปาว-โล)
[F.2-15-41-42-58-60]
Padre são pãolo(pad-dre-sang-pao-lo)
Priest of the order of Jesuit
4.Cap-pi-tan
[F.1-60-62]
Capitão(ca-pi-taw)
a captain
5.Me-si-mor-pu-yai
(เม-ศรี-หมอผู้ใหญ่)
[p.6-28]
Medicina médico
 (mé-[di]-si-[na])
senior medical doctor
6.Pa-tu-gan (ป-ตุ-กัน)
[F.33-34]
Portugal(pur-tu-gal/ por-tu-gal)
Kingdom of Portugal
(The Republic of Portugal)
7.Ing-bas-cro(อิง-บาศ-โคร)
[F.6-7-8-9-14-15]
Embaixador (ing-bai-sa-dor)


Ambassador  = Ambassadeur (Fr. ong-bas-sa-der)
8.Ig-bas-cro [35] (อิก-บาศ-โคร)
[F.8]
Ing-bas-dro(อิง-บาศ-โดร)
[F.61]
Embaixador (ing-bai-sa-dor)
Ambassadeur (Fr. ong-bas-sa-der)

Table2: Example of the second category, derived from the Portuguese words and imitating its pronunciation directly

Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon
Portuguese words
definitions
9.Sua-es-len-sia
(ซัว-เอส-เลน-เซีย)
[F.15]
sua excelência (singular noun)
His Excellency(E.),  son Excellence(Fr.)
10.Saw(a)-es-len-sia
(ซาว-เอส-เลน-เซีย)
[F.16]
são excelências (plural noun)
Their Excellencies (E.), 
11.Pang (ปัง)
[F.21-24-26-31-40-41-47]
Pão (pang)
bread
12.Bis-pu(บิสปู)
[p.42]
Bispu(bis-po)
bishop
13.Ca-rā-me-li-ta(กา-รา-เม-ลิ-ตา)
[F.2]
Carmelita(ga-ra-me-li-ta)
Carmélite(ga-ra-me-litə) = one sect of the Roman Catholic Church
14.Fran-ced(ฝรั่ง-เศด)
[F.6-20-18-26-33-43-44-51-55]
Francés(Fran-cés)
Français (Frong-se)
15.is-pā-nhā(อีส-ปา-ญะ)
[F.6]
Espanha (is-pan-ha)
Espagne(is-pānh)


Table3: Example of the third category, French words relates to the  Portuguese pronunciation

Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon
French words
Portuguese pronunciation
16.Brest(แบรสท์- bræst)
[F.2-28-31-32-42-53-55-61-63-64-66]
Brest(brest)
Brest(bræst)
17.Ga-deed(กา-ดีด)
[F.30-43-44]
Gadis (ga-di)
Gadis (ga-disə) = the town’s name  in France
18.Pa-ris(ปา-รีส)
[F.54-61-62-63-64]
Paris (Pa-ri)
Paris(Pa-ris) =the capital city of  France
19.Frunce (ฝรั่งซ์ [36])
[F.18-42]
France(frongs)
France(frungs)


Table4: Example of the forth category, the word mixing with French and Portuguese pronunciation
Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon
Portuguese pronunciation
French pronunciation
20.Ba-tri-Wa-sed
(บา-ตรี-วา-เสด)
[F.20-43-51-52-53-56-60-62-66]
Padre Vachet
(pa-drə Va-chət)
Père Vachet
(pære Va-che) = Father Vachez,  an interpreter for the Siamese Embassy.
21.Mu-su-ma-yid-trad
(มู-สู-มา-ยีด-ตรัด)
[F.60]
Magistrado
(ma-gis-tra-do)
Monsieur Magistrat
(mu-su ma-gis-tra) =calling this kind of official’s position with honored.
22.(sam-ma-nen-) An-ton  (สาม-มะ-เนน-อัน-ตน) [F.25]
António(an-tor-ni-u)
Antoine(ung-tuan) = Antione the novice.


Table5: Example of the  fifth category,  a  group of words that could be pronounced as similar as both languages

Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon
Portuguese pronunciation
French words
23.Su-pe (สุ-เป)
[p.26]

soup(su-pi)
Soupe (su-pə) = a kind of soup.
24.Su-po (สุ-โป)
[p.51]
Soup(su-pi)
Soupe (su-pə)= a kind of soup.
25.Sor-mung(สอ-มุง)
[p. 51]
salmon(sal-mung)
Saumon(so-mong)= a kind of salmon fish.


Conclusion
The relationship between Siam (Thailand) and Portugal has been continued for 5 centuries since 1511. The Portuguese language was a communicative media (the lingua-franca) in Siam and other Asian countries for nearly 350 years, from the  first contract between Siam and Portugal in 1516  to   the successful year   of  the British influences by the contract of Bowring in  1855. Significantly, it   forced the government of Siam to recognize the importance of English language instead of  the Portuguese. After that  it was   not widely used  again.
After analyzing the diary of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon to  find out the traces of Portuguese language using in day life of Siamese, the researcher had rediscovered  that , there were at least 25 words and pronunciations in Portuguese style.  Though only in the mentioning diary,   it may  indicated that the Portuguese language might have been used in rather broader scale in the royal court of Siam, through the nobleman in the department of harbor, translators, Portuguese and French priests and  officers of the royal court and the department of harbor. This could be also reiterated with the information in the  record of the Abbé Themolion de Choisy, who proudly  cried more than 3 times with the Portuguese word “basta! ” to junior officials of the Siamese court to prevent them adding  over royal  tributes to be brought back to France.
Besides, the development process of  the Portuguese words in the context of Thai society, was quite  similar that  of the word “fidalgo” that became the “fi-da-wu/ ฝี-ดา-วู” in Thai language.  From this evidence, it could be pointed out  that, Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, the owner of the diary  also used  the original Portuguese words in the  journal directly with his own right perception in the other kinds of word , for example,   the  words “sua excelência” (singular) and “são excelência” (plural). It could be also  indicated that he may have had a  profound  knowledge of  Portuguese grammar, too.  Finally, the researcher believes that there are still many Portuguese words in Thai archives waiting for further investigation.

References
1.Chronicle annals vol.57
2.Dirk  Van Der Cruysse and others, The  Diary of Kosa Pān (Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon), Thai Ambassador to France,  June-July 1686. Chiang Mai : Silkworm  Books, 2002
3.Kongkaew  Weeraprachuck,  “Diary of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon, Thai Ambassador to France in the Ayutthaya Peroid - บันทึกรายวันของออกพระวิสุทธสุนทร(โกษาปาน),  Silpakorn Magazine , Volume 28, issue 6, 1985
4.Kongkaew  Weeraprachuck,  “Transcription of the letters of  Kosa Pān -คำถอดถ่ายจดหมายโกษาปาน” . Silpakorn  Magazine . Volume 54 , issue 4, July-August,  2010
5.Manuel Teixeira, The Portuguese Missions in Malacca and Singapore,1511-1958, Volme III – Singapore, 1987
6.Michael Smithies, “Siamese Mandarins on the Grand Tour, 1688-1690” , Journal of the Siam Society, Vol. 86, Parts I & 2
7.Personal letter between the author and Dr. Migel Castelo Branco , June 7, 2012
8.Sumalee Wirawongsa in Notes on the loanword of Thai and Portuguese (ข้อสังเกตว่าด้วยคำยืมไทย-โปรตุเกส), the seminary  proceeding for the conference of  relations between Ayutthaya and Portugal, July 26-28, 2006
9.http://www.sac.or.th



[1]Manuel Teixeira, The Portuguese Missions in Malacca and Singapore,1511-1958Volme III – Singapore, 1987,  pp.485-486
[2]Captain Christopher  Rebelo  was a leader of the Portuguese village in Siam. He also accompanied the Siamese mission to Goa, Estado da India of Portugal. For more details in Thai  see Bidya Sriwattanasarn  in http://siamportuguesestudy.blogspot.com/2011/02/blog-post_8917.html
[3]Michael Smithies, “Siamese Mandarins on the Grand Tour, 1688-1690” , Journal of the Siam Society, Vol. 86, Parts I & 2, p.108
[4]Religious name of  Frère Fronçois Touvenet.
[5] Silpakorn  Magazine, volume28, issue 6
[6]http://www.sac.or.th
[7]chronicle annals vol.57p.21
[8]Jean Donneau de Vize (1686)
[9] Since the diary mentioned  the time “at noon-เพลาเที่ยง” for 2 times, it caused Visudh Busyakul, had  translated the first one as “before noon”  and the second one as “at noon”. Dirk van Der Cruysse and others , ibid., p.31
[10] An ancient Thai eight month was in July.
[11] This  word (mu-su) was  developed from the word monsieur in French.  Michael Smithies proposed that this one was Monsieur Raviton.  Dirk  Van Der Cruysse and others, The  Diary of Kosa Pān (Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon), Thai Ambassador to France,  June-July 1686. (Chiang Mai : Silkworm  Books, 2002), p.31
[12] Monsieur Chamareau , Dirke Van Der Cruysse and others, p.31
[13] Kongkaew  Weeraprachuck1,  “Diary of Ok-Phra Wisut Sunthon, Thai Ambassador to France in the Ayutthaya Peroid - บันทึกรายวันของออกพระวิสุทธสุนทร(โกษาปาน),  Silpakorn Magazine , Volume 28, issue 6, 1985, p.31
[14] Konkeaw  Weeraprachuck, ibid., p.142
[15] Kongkaew  Weeraprachuck2,  “Transcription of the letters of  Kosa Pān -คำถอดถ่ายจดหมายโกษาปาน” . Silpakorn  Magazine . Volume 54 , issue 4, July-August,  2010, pp.27-145
[16]Dirke Van Der Cruysse and others, op.cit. p. 31
[17] Dirke van Der Cruysse and others, p.31
[18] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio 1
[19] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio 7
[20] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio 11
[21] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio13
[22] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio13
[23] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio27
[24] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio28
[25] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio29
[26] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio33
[27] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio35
[28] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio35
[29] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio47
[30] Instituto Superior de CiênciasSociais e Políticas da UniversidadeTécnica de Lisboa.
[31] Personal letter between the author and Dr. Migel Castelo Branco (June 7, 2012)
[32] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio33
[33] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio35
[34] Ok- Phra Wisut Sunthon, folio47
[35]  As in Kongkaew, op.cit.p.143, this was developed from the French word “ambassadeur)
[36] Although she was right in the page 39,  Kongkaew had a little  wrong  transcription in the page 55 of her work,  as “ฝร้าษ- Fraz” instead  of “ฝรังซ์” , perhaps  she might  see the alphabet “-ng” as the “-æ vowel”,  see Kongkaew  Weeraprachuck1,   op.cit., p.55

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